Théophile-Louis Deyrolle was born in Paris in 1844. He became a student of William Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905) and Alexandre Cabanel (1823-1889), two of the most famous painters of the 19th century who reigned over the annual Salon and stayed within the boundaries of conventional styles.
Deyrolle made his debut at the Salon of 1876, and his first painting was exhibited at the Sociétaire des Artistes Français from 1884. He obtained an honorable mention in 1881, a third class medal in 1887 and a second-class medal in 1889. He won a bronze medal at the Éxposition Universelle in 1900.
Deyrolle also traveled in North Africa where he sketched extensively.